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After Sinai comes the next great development of the alliance with Nathan`s message to David (2 Sam 7; 1 Chr 17). David intends to build a “house” (i.e. temple) for God, but God promises to build a “house” (i.e. dynasty) for David. Neither 2 Sam 7 nor 1 J 17 explicitly describe God`s promise as a “covenant,” but several other texts (cf. 2 Sam 23, 5; 2 J 7, 18; 13, 5; Ps 89:3; Jer 33:21). When we turn to the New Testament, things that have only been pointed out in the Old Testament become very clear. Paul is faced with the atrocious situation where many of his Jewish parents rejected Christ and are cursed for increceration under God`s condemnation. But they are the descendants, the physical descendants of Abraham. How is that possible? Has the word of the promise been addressed to Israel? He gives his answer in Romans 9:6-8: “It is not as if the Word of God has fallen. Not everyone who descends from Israel belongs to Israel; and not all are sons of Abraham, only because they are his posterity; “But by Isaac, your descendants will be called.” This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but that the children of promise are considered descendants. 23 On that day Abraham took Ishmael, his son, and all those who had been born in his house, or he bought with his money all the male in his house, and circumcised them, as God had told him. 24 Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised, 25 and his son Ishmael (BG) was thirteen; 26 On that day Abraham and Ishmael, his son, were circumcised.

27 And all the men of Abraham`s house, those who were born in his house or bought by a stranger, were circumcised with him. According to the Hebrew Bible, the covenant of pieces or covenant between the parties (Hebrew: Berith bein heb-tarim) was an event in which God revealed himself to Abraham and entered into an alliance with him in which God announced to Abraham that his descendants would eventually inherit the land of Israel. This was the first in a series of covenants that were made between God and the biblical patriarchs. Hey, Bryan. Send me an e-mail to brian.dembowczyk@lifeway.com. I`d like to talk to you. “He who was born in your house and bought with your money must be circumcised; My covenant will be in your flesh for an eternal covenant. And the uncircumcised man, whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, whose soul is exterminated by his people; He broke my wedding ring. The persistent failure to live according to God`s demands led to an inevitable catastrophe for both the nation and its monarchy, which culminated in judgment: the destroyed temple and Babylonian exile. This could have meant the end if God`s plans for Israel had not been decisive in keeping his covenant promises. The exile of the nation and the fall of the monarchy had to be overcome in order for God`s plan of creation to be realized. The history of the alliance thus continued with the prospect of a “new alliance” – an alliance that would be both continuous and discontinuous with those of the past.

But God made Sarah fall pregnant with Isaac. Paul`s answer is that God`s promises to Abraham`s descendants have not failed, although many Jews are incredulous and cursed because the promises were never made to every physical descendant of Abraham. Just as Isaac, not Ishmael, was the child of the promise, and Jacob, not Esau, the child of the promise, there was also in the history of Israel a true remnant in Israel, which is the heir to the full blessing of the covenant. The rest is not the seed of Abraham, for although they bring back their physical ancestry, they do not share his faith and obedience. That is why John the Baptist said to the repentant Jews: “Do not say: We have Abraham like our father!” (Matthew 3:9) and Jesus said to the Jews who rejected him, “If you were children of Abraham, you would do what Abraham did” (John 8:39).