This bilateral customs agreement, which the US and the EU intend to formally implement in autumn 2020, was the culmination of negotiations that intensified after a meeting between President Trump and European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen in January 2020 in Davos, in Switzerland. Discussions between the US and the EU on possible tariff reductions and the elimination of non-tariff barriers began in earner in July 2018, when President Trump met at the White House with Commission President von der Leyen`s predecessor, Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker. The Court of Justice of the European Communities has ruled that the provisions of investor-state arbitration (including a special tribunal provided for in certain free trade agreements) fall within the competence of the European Union and its Member States and that, for this reason, their ratification should be approved by both the EU and each of the 28 States.  Beyond TTIP, a broader “transatlantic free trade area” has been postulated. [by whom?] [Citation required] This could include on the U.S. side the other members of the North American Free Trade Area (Canada and Mexico); and, on the European side, the members of the European Free Trade Association (Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein). . . .